Headmaster Notes , Test Preparation Classification of Educational Research Notes

Headmaster Notes , Test Preparation Classification of Educational Research Notes

Types by Purpose

1- Basic Research: it is concerned with development and refinement of theories.it is conducted in labs and uses animals rather than human beings as subjects.

2- Applied Reserch: it is concerned with the applying or testing of theories and evaluating its usefulness in solving educational problems. It is conducted in the field under natural setting. And uses humans as subjects rather than animals. It is conducted by educationists.

3- Action Research: it is concerned with solving practical problems through the application of scientific method. It is conducted in one or many classrooms and uses pupils as subjects. It is conducted by the teachers.

(B) Types by Method

1- Historical Research: it is concerned with studying, understanding and explaining events of past. Therd are 4 types of historical research (a) bibliographic research(b) legal research(c) research on history of idea (d) research on history of institutions and organizations.

2-Descriptive Research: it is concerned with describing the current status of a phenomena or subject of study. There are 2 types of descriptive research (a) simple descriptive (b) comparative descriptive.
The minimum sample size in descriptive research is 20% of the population.

3-Experimental Research: in this research the effect of independent variable on dependent variable is studied while controlling relevant/extraneous variables.it involves manipulation of at least one independent variable. The minimum size of a sample in experimental research is 15 per group.

4-Casual Comparative Research: casual comparative or ex post facto, research is that research in which the researcher attempts to determine the cause or reason, for existing difference in the behaviour of individuals. The basic casual comparative approach involves starting with an effect and seeking possible causes. It attempts to identify cause and effect relationship.Independent variable is not manipulated in this research.

5-Correlation Research: it involves collecting data in order to determine whether and to what degree, a relationship exists b/w two or more quantifiable variables. Degree of relatioship is expressed as a correlation coefficient. 30 subjects are generally considered to be a minimally acceptable sample size in this research.


Sampling: is a process of selecting a number of individual for a study in such a way that the individuals represent the larger group from which they were selected.

Types of Sampling
(1) Probability Sampling: it is that in which the sample is selected in such a way that every individual of a population has known chance/probability of being included in sample. ( random selection)

(2) Non Probabilhty Sampling: in this sampling it is not possible to specify the probability or chance that each member of a population has of being selected for the sample

Types of Probability Sampling

1: Random Sampling: in which all individuals in the defined population have an equal chance of selection.

2: Stratified Sampling: representation of same proportion of individuals in a sample as they exist in population”.

3: Cluster Sampling: sampling in which groups rather than individuals are selected.

4: Systematic Sampling: sampling in which individuals are selected from a list at specific interval/sequence.
Types of Non Probability Sampling

1: Convenience Sampling: it involves people who are available, volunteer, or can be easily recruited. It is also referred as accidental sampling/ haphazard sampling.

2:Quota Sampling: when listing of population is not possible, interviews are given from exact number of quotas from persons of varying character. In which researcher determines the appropriate sample sizes for the groups identified as important, and then taking convenience samples from those groups.

3:Purposive Sampling: sampling that involves selecting a convenience sample from a population with a specific set of characteristics for research study.

4: Snowball Sampling: sampling in which the researcher ask the research participants to identify other potential research participants.

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