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Karachi Board 2nd year Chemistry Important Topics

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Karachi Board 2nd year Chemistry Important Topics

Chapter1

Identification of group, period and block, Mendeleev periodic table and its advantages and

disadvantages, types of elements on the basis of electronic configuration, modern periodic law.

Chapter 2

Binary compounds of hydrogen, ionic and complex, preparation of water gas and removal of hydrogen

from it, preparations of hydrogen gas, atomic hydrogen is more reactive than molecular hydrogen, what

is heavy water?

Chapter 3

Castner Kellner process and advantages disadvantages, reactions of washing soda, preparation and

reaction of bleaching powder, scientific reason number 4,6,12,9.

Chapter 4

Contact process, reactions of nitric acid, allotropy of carbon, hydrogen sulphide gas and its reactions,

Hall’s method and electrolysis of alumina, ores of Aluminum, aqua regia, structures of nitric acid, alum,

thermite process, auto oxidation of chlorine, transition temperature, chemistry of borax, three different

acids of boron. Nelson’s cell.

Chapter 5

Metallurgy of copper, characteristic properties of transition metal( variable valency,magnetic property,

catalytic property, color) IUPAC of complex compounds, tin plating, stainless steel, lunar caustic, blue

vitriol, reactions of potassium dichromate and chromate, potassium permanganate.

Chapter6

Isomerism and its types, polymerization and its types, functional groups and its identification, cracking

and its types, reforming. IUPAC nomenclature.

Chapter 7

Structure of ethyne and ethane, Kekule’s structure of benzene, reactions of ethene, free radical

substitution reactions of methane, orientation of benzene with derivatives, electrophilic substitution

reactions of benzene( nitration and Friedel craft alkylation), prove that benzene is a saturated as well as

unsaturated hydrocarbon, markownikoff’s rule with example.

Chapter 8

What are alkyl halides? Classification, elimination reactions, Grignard reagent and its reactions( vinegar,

secondary and tertiary alcohol),

Chapter 9

Fermentation and preparation of ethanol, alcohols and its classification, dry distillation of calcium

formate and acetate, esterification and its reaction, hydrolysis of ester, cyanohydrins formation,

iodoform formation, Williamson’s synthesis, canizarro reaction, alkyl halide with silver oxide, fehling’s

test, pyrolysis of acetic acid, formaldehyde with tollen’s reagent, IUPAC nomenclature, classification of

phenol, ethyl acetate used as plasticizer.

Chapter 10

Vitamins and its sources and diseases, rancidification,enzymes and factors which effect their rates,

differentiate between reducing and non reducing sugar,amino acids and their classifications.

Chapter 11

Fertilizers, detergents. Rayon.

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